Pianeta

pianeta

Francesco Pianeta, Gelsenkirchen. Gefällt Mal. Profiboxer im Schwergewicht. Juni Im zweiten Schwergewichtskampf in Unterschleißheim, konnte der junge Petar Milas einen wichtigen Sieg gegen Francesco Pianeta feiern. Juli Der gebürtige Italiener Pianeta (33) boxte bereits zweimal um den WM-Titel: Vor drei Jahren verlor er gegen Ruslan Tschagajew (Usbekistan). Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Ein Kampf, der Action verspricht. Mit einer neugestalteten Gedenkstätte will Lüneburg künftig an den Holocaust und die jüdische Geschichte in der Hansestadt erinnern. Somit kann ich ganz entspannt in den Kampf gehen und werde natürlich alles dafür tun, um als Sieger nach Hause zu kommen. Unlängst hat der Europäische Gerichtshof kürzlich geurteilt , dass die Nutzung solcher Live-Streams illegal ist. Nanu, was ist denn da los? Als Vorspeise empfehlen wir eine leckere Bruschetteria. Dezember verteidigte der von Ulli Wegner trainierte Schwergewichtler gegen den ungeschlagenen französischen Herausforderer Johann Duhaupas seinen Titel einstimmig nach Punkten Kommunalverbände und Justizangestellte in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern sind mit dem Nachtragshaushalt des Landes für unzufrieden. Die Plädoyers von Staatsanwaltschaft und Verteidigung wurden noch am Freitag erwartet. Ein Mann hat in der Sassnitzer Stadtbibliothek zwei Polizisten angegriffen und einen von ihnen schwer verletzt. Das Spitzenspiel in der 2. Was bedeutet der Zusammensc

The Highlands are generally mountainous and the highest elevations in the British Isles are found here. Scotland has over islands divided into four main groups: There are numerous bodies of freshwater including Loch Lomond and Loch Ness.

Some parts of the coastline consist of machair , a low-lying dune pasture land. The Central Lowlands is a rift valley mainly comprising Paleozoic formations.

Many of these sediments have economic significance for it is here that the coal and iron bearing rocks that fuelled Scotland's industrial revolution are found.

This area has also experienced intense volcanism, Arthur's Seat in Edinburgh being the remnant of a once much larger volcano.

This area is relatively low-lying, although even here hills such as the Ochils and Campsie Fells are rarely far from view. They lie south of a second fault line the Southern Uplands fault that runs from Girvan to Dunbar.

The climate of Scotland is temperate and oceanic , and tends to be very changeable. As it is warmed by the Gulf Stream from the Atlantic, it has much milder winters but cooler, wetter summers than areas on similar latitudes, such as Labrador , southern Scandinavia , the Moscow region in Russia, and the Kamchatka Peninsula on the opposite side of Eurasia.

The highest temperature recorded was The west of Scotland is usually warmer than the east, owing to the influence of Atlantic ocean currents and the colder surface temperatures of the North Sea.

Tiree , in the Inner Hebrides, is one of the sunniest places in the country: Braemar has an average of 59 snow days per year, [] while many coastal areas average fewer than 10 days of lying snow per year.

Scotland's wildlife is typical of the north-west of Europe, although several of the larger mammals such as the lynx, brown bear, wolf, elk and walrus were hunted to extinction in historic times.

There are important populations of seals and internationally significant nesting grounds for a variety of seabirds such as gannets.

On the high mountain tops, species including ptarmigan , mountain hare and stoat can be seen in their white colour phase during winter months.

Today, much of the remaining native Caledonian Forest lies within the Cairngorms National Park and remnants of the forest remain at 84 locations across Scotland.

On the west coast, remnants of ancient Celtic Rainforest still remain, particularly on the Taynish peninsula in Argyll , these forests are particularly rare due to high rates of deforestation throughout Scottish history.

The flora of the country is varied incorporating both deciduous and coniferous woodland as well as moorland and tundra species.

However, large scale commercial tree planting and the management of upland moorland habitat for the grazing of sheep and commercial field sport activities impacts upon the distribution of indigenous plants and animals.

The population of Scotland at the Census was 5,, This rose to 5,,, the highest ever, at the Census. Although Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland, the largest city is Glasgow, which has just over , inhabitants.

The Greater Glasgow conurbation, with a population of almost 1. Scotland's only major city outside the Central Belt is Aberdeen. In general, only the more accessible and larger islands remain inhabited.

Currently, fewer than 90 remain inhabited. The Southern Uplands are essentially rural in nature and dominated by agriculture and forestry.

Scotland has three officially recognised languages: English, Scots , and Scottish Gaelic. There are many more people with Scottish ancestry living abroad than the total population of Scotland.

In the Census, 9. In August , the Scottish population reached an all-time high of 5. The total fertility rate TFR in Scotland is below the replacement rate of 2.

The majority of births are to unmarried women Life expectancy for those born in Scotland between and is Since it has had a Presbyterian system of church government and enjoys independence from the state.

Other Christian denominations in Scotland include the Free Church of Scotland , and various other Presbyterian offshoots. Scotland's third largest church is the Scottish Episcopal Church.

Islam is the largest non-Christian religion estimated at around 75,, which is about 1. The regnal numbering "Elizabeth II" caused controversy around the time of her coronation because there had never been an Elizabeth I in Scotland.

The British government stated in April that future British monarchs would be numbered according to either their English or their Scottish predecessors, whichever number would be higher.

The monarchy of the United Kingdom continues to use a variety of styles, titles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to pre-union Scotland, including: Scotland has limited self-government within the United Kingdom, as well as representation in the UK Parliament.

Executive and legislative powers respectively have been devolved to the Scottish Government and the Scottish Parliament at Holyrood in Edinburgh since The UK Parliament retains control over reserved matters specified in the Scotland Act , including UK taxes, social security, defence, international relations and broadcasting.

It initially had only a limited power to vary income tax , [] but powers over taxation and social security were significantly expanded by the Scotland Acts of and The Scottish Parliament can give legislative consent over devolved matters back to the UK Parliament by passing a Legislative Consent Motion if United Kingdom-wide legislation is considered more appropriate for a certain issue.

The programmes of legislation enacted by the Scottish Parliament have seen a divergence in the provision of public services compared to the rest of the UK.

For instance, university education and care services for the elderly are free at point of use in Scotland, while fees are paid in the rest of the UK.

Scotland was the first country in the UK to ban smoking in enclosed public places. MSPs serve for a four-year period exceptionally five years from — The Parliament nominates one of its Members, who is then appointed by the Monarch to serve as First Minister.

Together they make up the Scottish Government, the executive arm of the devolved government. The First Minister is also the political leader of Scotland.

Alongside the Deputy First Minister's requirements as Deputy, the minister also has a cabinet ministerial responsibility.

Swinney is also currently Cabinet Secretary for Education and Skills. There are also twelve other ministers, who work alongside the cabinet secretaries in their appointed areas.

The Conservative Party became the largest opposition party in the elections, with the Labour Party , Liberal Democrats and the Green Party also represented in the Parliament.

The next Scottish Parliament election is due to be held on 6 May Scotland is represented in the British House of Commons by 59 MPs elected from territory-based Scottish constituencies.

In the general election , the SNP won 35 of the 59 seats. The next United Kingdom general election is scheduled for 5 May The relationships between the central UK Government and devolved governments of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are based on the extra-statutory principles and agreements with the main elements are set out in a Memorandum of Understanding between the UK government and the devolved governments of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

The MOU lays emphasis on the principles of good communication, consultation and co-operation. Since devolution in , Scotland has devolved stronger working relations across the two other devolved governments, the Welsh Government and Northern Ireland Executive.

Whilst there are no formal concordats between the Scottish Government, Welsh Government and Northern Ireland Executive, ministers from each devolved government meet at various points throughout the year at various events such as the British-Irish Council and also meet to discuss matters and issues that are devolved to each government.

The Scottish Government considers the successful re-establishment of the Plenary, and establishment of the Domestic fora to be important facets of the relationship with the UK Government and the other devolved administrations.

In the aftermath of the United Kingdom's decision to withdraw from the European Union in , the Scottish Government has called for there to be a joint approach from each of the devolved governments.

In early , the devolved governments met to discuss Brexit and agree on Brexit strategies from each devolved government [] which lead for Theresa May to issue a statement that claims that the devolved governments will not have a central role or decision making process in the Brexit process, but that the UK Government plans to "fully engage" Scotland in talks alongside the governments of Wales and Northern Ireland.

Whilst foreign policy remains a reserved matter, [] the Scottish Government still has the power and ability to strengthen and develop Scotland, the economy and Scottish interests on the world stage and encourage foreign businesses, international devolved, regional and central governments to invest in Scotland.

At the same time, McConnell and the then Scottish Executive pioneered the way forward to launch what would become the Scotland Malawi Partnership which co-ordinates Scottish activities to strengthen existing links with Malawi.

McConnell, speaking at the end, highlighted that the visit by Putin was a "post-devolution" step towards "Scotland regaining its international identity".

Under the Salmond administration, Scotland's trade and investment deals with countries such as China [] [] and Canada, where Salmond established the Canada Plan — which aimed to strengthen "the important historical, cultural and economic links" between both Canada and Scotland.

A policy of devolution had been advocated by the three main UK parties with varying enthusiasm during recent history.

A previous Labour leader. John Smith , described the revival of a Scottish parliament as the "settled will of the Scottish people".

The constitutional status of Scotland is nonetheless subject to ongoing debate. The new government established a " National Conversation " on constitutional issues, proposing a number of options such as increasing the powers of the Scottish Parliament, federalism , or a referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom.

In rejecting the last option, the three main opposition parties in the Scottish Parliament created a commission to investigate the distribution of powers between devolved Scottish and UK-wide bodies.

Opposition from all other major parties led to an expected defeat. Following a referendum on the UK's membership of the European Union on 23 June , where a UK-wide majority voted to withdraw from the EU whilst a majority within Scotland voted to remain, Scotland's First Minister , Nicola Sturgeon , announced that as a result a new independence referendum was "highly likely".

Historical subdivisions of Scotland included the mormaerdom , stewartry , earldom , burgh , parish , county and regions and districts.

Some of these names are still sometimes used as geographical descriptors. Modern Scotland is subdivided in various ways depending on the purpose.

In local government, there have been 32 single-tier council areas since , [] whose councils are responsible for the provision of all local government services.

Decisions are made by councillors who are elected at local elections every five years. The head of each council is usually the Lord Provost alongside the Leader of the Council, [] with a Chief Executive being appointed as director of the council area.

In the Scottish Parliament, there are 73 constituencies and eight regions. For the Parliament of the United Kingdom, there are 59 constituencies.

Until , the Scottish fire brigades and police forces were based on a system of regions introduced in For healthcare and postal districts, and a number of other governmental and non-governmental organisations such as the churches, there are other long-standing methods of subdividing Scotland for the purposes of administration.

City status in the United Kingdom is conferred by letters patent. Scots law has a basis derived from Roman law , [] combining features of both uncodified civil law , dating back to the Corpus Juris Civilis , and common law with medieval sources.

The terms of the Treaty of Union with England in guaranteed the continued existence of a separate legal system in Scotland from that of England and Wales.

Various other systems derived from common Celtic or Brehon laws survived in the Highlands until the s. Scots law provides for three types of courts responsible for the administration of justice: The supreme civil court is the Court of Session , although civil appeals can be taken to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom or before 1 October , the House of Lords.

The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court in Scotland. The sheriff court is the main criminal and civil court, hearing most cases.

There are 49 sheriff courts throughout the country. These were gradually replaced by Justice of the Peace Courts from to The Court of the Lord Lyon regulates heraldry.

For many decades the Scots legal system was unique for being the only legal system without a parliament. This ended with the advent of the Scottish Parliament, which legislates for Scotland.

Many features within the system have been preserved. Within criminal law, the Scots legal system is unique in having three possible verdicts: There is, however, the possibility of a retrial where new evidence emerges at a later date that might have proven conclusive in the earlier trial at first instance, where the person acquitted subsequently admits the offence or where it can be proved that the acquittal was tainted by an attempt to pervert the course of justice — see the provisions of the Double Jeopardy Scotland Act Many laws differ between Scotland and the other parts of the United Kingdom, and many terms differ for certain legal concepts.

Manslaughter , in England and Wales, is broadly similar to culpable homicide in Scotland, and arson is called wilful fire raising. Indeed, some acts considered crimes in England and Wales, such as forgery, are not so in Scotland.

Scots juries, sitting in criminal cases, consist of fifteen jurors, which is three more than is typical in many countries. However, even prior to , half of Scotland's landmass was already covered by state-funded health care, provided by the Highlands and Islands Medical Service.

In , the NHS in Scotland had around , staff including more than 47, nurses, midwives and health visitors and over 3, consultants. There are also more than 12, doctors, family practitioners and allied health professionals, including dentists, opticians and community pharmacists, who operate as independent contractors providing a range of services within the NHS in return for fees and allowances.

Traditionally, the Scottish economy has been dominated by heavy industry underpinned by shipbuilding in Glasgow, coal mining and steel industries.

Petroleum related industries associated with the extraction of North Sea oil have also been important employers from the s, especially in the north-east of Scotland.

In February , the Centre for Economics and Business Research concluded that "Scotland receives no net subsidy" from the UK, as greater per capita tax generation in Scotland balanced out greater per capita public spending.

In the final quarter of , the Scottish economy contracted by 0. Edinburgh is the financial services centre of Scotland, with many large finance firms based there, including: Edinburgh was ranked 15th in the list of world financial centres in , but fell to 37th in , following damage to its reputation, [] and in was ranked 56th out of Whisky is one of Scotland's more known goods of economic activity.

Although Scotland has a long military tradition predating the Treaty of Union with England, its armed forces now form part of the British Armed Forces , with the exception of the Atholl Highlanders , Europe's only legal private army.

In , the infantry regiments of the Scottish Division were amalgamated to form the Royal Regiment of Scotland. Because of their topography and perceived remoteness, parts of Scotland have housed many sensitive defence establishments.

Scapa Flow was the major Fleet base for the Royal Navy until A single front-line Royal Air Force base is located in Scotland.

RAF Lossiemouth , located in Moray , is the most northerly air defence fighter base in the United Kingdom and is home to three fast-jet squadrons equipped with the Eurofighter Typhoon.

The Scottish education system has always been distinct from the rest of the United Kingdom, with a characteristic emphasis on a broad education.

The Curriculum for Excellence , Scotland's national school curriculum, presently provides the curricular framework for children and young people from age 3 to Formal primary education begins at approximately 5 years old and lasts for 7 years P1—P7 ; children in Scotland study Standard Grades , or Intermediate qualifications between the ages of 14 and These are being phased out and replaced by the National Qualifications of the Curriculum for Excellence.

The school leaving age is 16, after which students may choose to remain at school and study for Access , Intermediate or Higher Grade and Advanced Higher qualifications.

There are fifteen Scottish universities , some of which are amongst the oldest in the world. Young Students are defined as those under 25, without children, marriage, civil partnership or cohabiting partner, who have not been outside of full-time education for more than three years.

Scotland's universities are complemented in the provision of Further and Higher Education by 43 colleges. These Group Awards, alongside Scottish Vocational Qualifications, aim to ensure Scotland's population has the appropriate skills and knowledge to meet workplace needs.

Scottish music is a significant aspect of the nation's culture, with both traditional and modern influences. A famous traditional Scottish instrument is the Great Highland bagpipe , a wind instrument consisting of three drones and a melody pipe called the chanter , which are fed continuously by a reservoir of air in a bag.

Bagpipe bands , featuring bagpipes and various types of drums, and showcasing Scottish music styles while creating new ones, have spread throughout the world.

Scotland has a literary heritage dating back to the early Middle Ages. The earliest extant literature composed in what is now Scotland was in Brythonic speech in the 6th century, but is preserved as part of Welsh literature.

As one of the Celtic nations , Scotland and Scottish culture are represented at interceltic events at home and over the world. The image of St. Andrew , martyred while bound to an X-shaped cross, first appeared in the Kingdom of Scotland during the reign of William I.

There are numerous other symbols and symbolic artefacts, both official and unofficial, including the thistle , the nation's floral emblem celebrated in the song, The Thistle o' Scotland , the Declaration of Arbroath , incorporating a statement of political independence made on 6 April , the textile pattern tartan that often signifies a particular Scottish clan and the royal Lion Rampant flag.

Although there is no official national anthem of Scotland , [] Flower of Scotland is played on special occasions and sporting events such as football and rugby matches involving the Scotland national teams and since is also played at the Commonwealth Games after it was voted the overwhelming favourite by participating Scottish athletes.

St Andrew's Day , 30 November, is the national day , although Burns' Night tends to be more widely observed, particularly outside Scotland.

The national animal of Scotland is the unicorn , which has been a Scottish heraldic symbol since the 12th century. Scottish cuisine has distinctive attributes and recipes of its own but shares much with wider British and European cuisine as a result of local and foreign influences, both ancient and modern.

Traditional Scottish dishes exist alongside international foodstuffs brought about by migration. Scotland's natural larder of game , dairy products, fish, fruit, and vegetables is the chief factor in traditional Scots cooking, with a high reliance on simplicity and a lack of spices from abroad, as these were historically rare and expensive.

Irn-Bru is the most common Scottish carbonated soft drink, often described as "Scotland's other national drink" after whisky. During the Late Middle Ages and early modern era , French cuisine played a role in Scottish cookery due to cultural exchanges brought about by the " Auld Alliance ", [] especially during the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots.

Mary, on her return to Scotland, brought an entourage of French staff who are considered responsible for revolutionising Scots cooking and for some of Scotland's unique food terminology.

Scottish entrants have won many awards since the festival began in Television in Scotland is largely the same as UK-wide broadcasts, however, the national broadcaster is BBC Scotland , a constituent part of the British Broadcasting Corporation , the publicly funded broadcaster of the United Kingdom.

Scotland also has some programming in the Gaelic language. BBC Alba is the national Gaelic-language channel. The main Scottish commercial television station is STV.

Scotland has its own national governing bodies, such as the Scottish Football Association the second oldest national football association in the world [] and the Scottish Rugby Union.

Variations of football have been played in Scotland for centuries, with the earliest reference dating back to The world's first official international association football match was held in and was the idea of C.

The match was between Scotland and England and resulted in a 0—0 draw. Following this, the newly developed football became the most popular sport in Scotland.

The Scottish Cup was first contested in As a result of this key role in the development of the sport Scotland is one of only four countries to have a permanent representative on the IFAB; the other four representatives being appointed for set periods by FIFA.

The SFA also has responsibility for the Scotland national football team , whose supporters are commonly known as the " Tartan Army ". The national team last attended the World Cup in France in , but finished last in their group stage.

Celtic, Rangers and Dundee United have also reached European finals, the most recent of these being in With the modern game of golf originating in 15th-century Scotland, the country is promoted as the home of golf.

Other distinctive features of the national sporting culture include the Highland games , curling and shinty. Scotland has competed at every Commonwealth Games since and has won medals in total—91 Gold, Silver and Bronze.

The Scottish motorways and major trunk roads are managed by Transport Scotland. The remainder of the road network is managed by the Scottish local authorities in each of their areas.

Scotland has five main international airports Glasgow , Edinburgh , Aberdeen , Glasgow Prestwick and Inverness , which together serve international destinations with a wide variety of scheduled and chartered flights.

Historically, Scotland has had several national airlines that has acted as the countries flag carrier , however, most of which are now defunct.

Loganair , still in operation mostly in the Scottish highlands and serving the outer islands of Scotland, is largely considered to be the modern day flag carrier of Scotland and in to honour this title, Loganair revamped and introduced new and current airlines with their updated Tartan Aircraft livery to help bring "a new Scottish identify to the skies".

Network Rail owns and operates the fixed infrastructure assets of the railway system in Scotland, while the Scottish Government retains overall responsibility for rail strategy and funding in Scotland.

The East Coast and West Coast main railway lines connect the major cities and towns of Scotland with each other and with the rail network in England.

Domestic rail services within Scotland are operated by Abellio ScotRail. British Rail created the ScotRail brand. When British Rail existed, many railway lines in Strathclyde were electrified.

Strathclyde Passenger Transport Executive was at the forefront with the acclaimed "largest electrified rail network outside London".

Completed in , this cantilever bridge has been described as "the one internationally recognised Scottish landmark". Regular ferry services operate between the Scottish mainland and outlying islands.

Ferries serving both the inner and outer Hebrides are principally operated by the state-owned enterprise Caledonian MacBrayne. Services to the Northern Isles are operated by Serco.

Other routes, served by multiple companies, connect southwest Scotland to Northern Ireland. Increasing amounts of Scotland's electricity are generated through solar power and wind power.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Scotland disambiguation. Various [b] Predominantly " Flower of Scotland ".

Sovereign state Legal jurisdiction. Modern use of the term describes products of Scotland usually food or drink-related. It is also a UK electoral region for the European Parliament.

Certain executive and legislative powers have been devolved to, respectively, the Scottish Government and the Scottish Parliament.

Timeline of prehistoric Scotland. Scotland during the Roman Empire. Scotland in the early modern period. Scotland in the modern era.

Fauna of Scotland and Flora of Scotland. Languages of Scotland , Religion in Scotland , and Scottish people. Scottish population by ethnic group [] v t e.

Largest cities or towns in Scotland Scotland's Census []. Bute House is the official residence and workplace of the First Minister.

Holyrood is the seat of the national parliament of Scotland. Education in Scotland and List of universities in Scotland. University of St Andrews is the oldest University in Scotland and third oldest in the English-speaking world.

Utenti di Internet nel mondo. Post di Blog scritti oggi. Ricerche effettuate su Google oggi. Foresta distrutta quest'anno ettari. The number shown above is net of reforestation fonti ed info: Erosione di terra coltivabile quest'anno ha.

Restoring the land - FAO. Emissioni di CO2 quest'anno tonn. CO2 Emissions shown are from Fuel Combustion fonti ed info: United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification.

Sostanze tossiche rilasciate nell'ambiente quest'anno tonn. Persone denutrite nel mondo. Persone sovrappeso nel mondo. Persone obese nel mondo. Persone morte di fame oggi.

Soldi spesi in programmi per dimagrire negli Stati Uniti oggi. URL consultato il 23 marzo URL consultato il 10 marzo Asphaug, Origin of the Moon in a giant impact near the end of the Earth's formation , in Nature , vol.

URL consultato il 6 marzo Ford Doolittle, Uprooting the tree of life , in Scientific American , vol. URL consultato il 5 marzo Nance, How do supercontinents assemble?

Kirschvink, The Proterozoic Biosphere: A Multidisciplinary Study , a cura di Schopf, J. McElroy, The impact of humans on continental erosion and sedimentation , in Bulletin of the Geological Society of America , vol.

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URL consultato il 10 agosto Kirschvink, Late Proterozoic low-latitude global glaciation: Klein a cura di , The Proterozoic Biosphere: URL consultato il 17 marzo URL consultato il 21 marzo La misura del raggio in U.

URL consultato il 20 aprile URL consultato il 31 marzo URL consultato il 17 marzo archiviato dall' url originale il 10 marzo URL consultato il 24 marzo URL consultato il 21 aprile McMahon, Versione aggiornata del mondo secondo la classificazione climatica Köppen-Geiger , in Hydrol.

URL consultato il 6 luglio URL consultato il 24 marzo archiviato dall' url originale l'8 agosto Rona, Resources of the Sea Floor , in Science , vol.

The Revision , United Nations. Growth , Population Reference Bureau, URL consultato il 31 marzo archiviato dall' url originale il 10 febbraio URL consultato il 27 marzo Present and Future , in Astrophysical Journal , vol.

How Long Has the Earth Got? Altri progetti Wikiquote Wikizionario Wikimedia Commons. Portale Scienze della Terra.

Naturalmente sono ben accetti suggerimenti e modifiche che migliorino ulteriormente il lavoro svolto.

Pianeta Video

Tyson Fury vs Francesco Pianeta (Highlights)

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Der Transporter sei augenscheinlich mit einer hohen dreistelligen Kilozahl Betäubung Das Duell mit Fury wird der Novemberrevolution - Pogromnacht - Mauerfall Kritik Kundin beklagt sich über Schikane bei der Mülheimer Tafel. Unterm Strich werden wir sehen, wie es ausgeht.

CO2 Emissions shown are from Fuel Combustion fonti ed info: United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. Sostanze tossiche rilasciate nell'ambiente quest'anno tonn.

Persone denutrite nel mondo. Persone sovrappeso nel mondo. Persone obese nel mondo. Persone morte di fame oggi. Soldi spesi in programmi per dimagrire negli Stati Uniti oggi.

Payer-And Service-Specific Estimates by: Acqua consumata quest'anno milioni di litri. Morti a causa di malattie associate all'acqua quest'anno.

Persone senza accesso ad acqua potabile. Energia consumata oggi MWh , di cui: MWh Energia solare sulla terra oggi MWh.

Petrolio estratto oggi barili. Conto alla rovescia all'esaurimento delle risorse petrolifere: During the Late Middle Ages and early modern era , French cuisine played a role in Scottish cookery due to cultural exchanges brought about by the " Auld Alliance ", [] especially during the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots.

Mary, on her return to Scotland, brought an entourage of French staff who are considered responsible for revolutionising Scots cooking and for some of Scotland's unique food terminology.

Scottish entrants have won many awards since the festival began in Television in Scotland is largely the same as UK-wide broadcasts, however, the national broadcaster is BBC Scotland , a constituent part of the British Broadcasting Corporation , the publicly funded broadcaster of the United Kingdom.

Scotland also has some programming in the Gaelic language. BBC Alba is the national Gaelic-language channel. The main Scottish commercial television station is STV.

Scotland has its own national governing bodies, such as the Scottish Football Association the second oldest national football association in the world [] and the Scottish Rugby Union.

Variations of football have been played in Scotland for centuries, with the earliest reference dating back to The world's first official international association football match was held in and was the idea of C.

The match was between Scotland and England and resulted in a 0—0 draw. Following this, the newly developed football became the most popular sport in Scotland.

The Scottish Cup was first contested in As a result of this key role in the development of the sport Scotland is one of only four countries to have a permanent representative on the IFAB; the other four representatives being appointed for set periods by FIFA.

The SFA also has responsibility for the Scotland national football team , whose supporters are commonly known as the " Tartan Army ".

The national team last attended the World Cup in France in , but finished last in their group stage. Celtic, Rangers and Dundee United have also reached European finals, the most recent of these being in With the modern game of golf originating in 15th-century Scotland, the country is promoted as the home of golf.

Other distinctive features of the national sporting culture include the Highland games , curling and shinty. Scotland has competed at every Commonwealth Games since and has won medals in total—91 Gold, Silver and Bronze.

The Scottish motorways and major trunk roads are managed by Transport Scotland. The remainder of the road network is managed by the Scottish local authorities in each of their areas.

Scotland has five main international airports Glasgow , Edinburgh , Aberdeen , Glasgow Prestwick and Inverness , which together serve international destinations with a wide variety of scheduled and chartered flights.

Historically, Scotland has had several national airlines that has acted as the countries flag carrier , however, most of which are now defunct.

Loganair , still in operation mostly in the Scottish highlands and serving the outer islands of Scotland, is largely considered to be the modern day flag carrier of Scotland and in to honour this title, Loganair revamped and introduced new and current airlines with their updated Tartan Aircraft livery to help bring "a new Scottish identify to the skies".

Network Rail owns and operates the fixed infrastructure assets of the railway system in Scotland, while the Scottish Government retains overall responsibility for rail strategy and funding in Scotland.

The East Coast and West Coast main railway lines connect the major cities and towns of Scotland with each other and with the rail network in England.

Domestic rail services within Scotland are operated by Abellio ScotRail. British Rail created the ScotRail brand. When British Rail existed, many railway lines in Strathclyde were electrified.

Strathclyde Passenger Transport Executive was at the forefront with the acclaimed "largest electrified rail network outside London". Completed in , this cantilever bridge has been described as "the one internationally recognised Scottish landmark".

Regular ferry services operate between the Scottish mainland and outlying islands. Ferries serving both the inner and outer Hebrides are principally operated by the state-owned enterprise Caledonian MacBrayne.

Services to the Northern Isles are operated by Serco. Other routes, served by multiple companies, connect southwest Scotland to Northern Ireland.

Increasing amounts of Scotland's electricity are generated through solar power and wind power. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country.

For other uses, see Scotland disambiguation. Various [b] Predominantly " Flower of Scotland ". Sovereign state Legal jurisdiction.

Modern use of the term describes products of Scotland usually food or drink-related. It is also a UK electoral region for the European Parliament.

Certain executive and legislative powers have been devolved to, respectively, the Scottish Government and the Scottish Parliament.

Timeline of prehistoric Scotland. Scotland during the Roman Empire. Scotland in the early modern period. Scotland in the modern era.

Fauna of Scotland and Flora of Scotland. Languages of Scotland , Religion in Scotland , and Scottish people. Scottish population by ethnic group [] v t e.

Largest cities or towns in Scotland Scotland's Census []. Bute House is the official residence and workplace of the First Minister.

Holyrood is the seat of the national parliament of Scotland. Education in Scotland and List of universities in Scotland.

University of St Andrews is the oldest University in Scotland and third oldest in the English-speaking world. Culture of Scotland and National symbols of Scotland.

Robert Burns , regarded as the national poet of Scotland is a well known and respected poet worldwide left.

The bagpipes are a well known symbol of Scotland and an early example of popular Scottish music right. Renewable energy in Scotland. Scotland portal United Kingdom portal Celtic Studies portal.

Archived from the original on 11 November Retrieved 2 December Retrieved 15 November Retrieved 9 December Retrieved 9 August Office for National Statistics.

National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 8 August Retrieved 24 April Retrieved 23 October Retrieved 2 August Retrieved 17 January Retrieved 24 June Archived from the original on 16 April Retrieved 24 August The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: International Organization for Standardization codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions — Part 2: Retrieved 31 May Retrieved 14 September The Houses of Parliament.

Retrieved 26 December This means that not only totally foreign independent countries such as France or Russia Retrieved 7 May Archived from the original on 1 May Retrieved 26 May Retrieved 4 May Retrieved 1 August Freeman, Ireland and the Classical World , Austin, , pp.

The History Of Ireland. Retrieved 17 September See Moffat, Alistair Before Scotland: The Story of Scotland Before History.

Rubbish dump reveals time-capsule of Scotland's earliest settlements" megalithic. Retrieved 10 February and Edwards, Kevin J.

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Archived from the original on 5 September Retrieved 26 September Archived from the original on 8 January Retrieved 5 February Archived copy as title link CS1 maint: Archived from the original on 20 October How the Scots-Irish Shaped America".

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General Register Office for Scotland. Retrieved 22 March Retrieved 11 August Retrieved 29 September Retrieved 1 October Nonostante le numerose ipotesi sulla presenza di questo campo, le teorie si sono orientate verso un modello analogo a quello di una dinamo ad autoeccitazione.

Esse hanno portato, nel corso delle ere geologiche, alla deriva dei poli magnetici rispetto ai continenti e a ripetuti fenomeni di inversione del campo, con scambio reciproco dei poli magnetici Nord e Sud.

Il magnetismo terrestre ha una notevole importanza per la vita sulla Terra. Infatti esso si estende per svariate decine di migliaia di chilometri nello spazio, formando una zona chiamata magnetosfera , la cui presenza genera una sorta di "scudo" elettromagnetico che devia e riduce il numero di raggi cosmici che se arrivassero alla superficie del pianeta porterebbero alla sua sterilizzazione.

Dall'interazione tra raggi cosmici vento solare e magnetosfera viene originato lo splendido fenomeno detto aurora boreale.

Le forme di vita del pianeta compongono la biosfera. Le teorie correnti pongono la sua nascita a qualche centinaio di milioni di anni dopo la formazione del pianeta, tra 3,5 e 4 miliardi di anni fa.

Sulla Terra, i biomi sono separati principalmente secondo la latitudine. L'acqua suddivide il pianeta in cinque oceani e sette continenti.

Questi sali provengono dalla diretta emissione vulcanica o dallo smantellamento chimico e fisico effettuato nel tempo a discapito delle rocce magmatiche.

Le masse acquee sono, inoltre, enormi serbatoi di sostanze gassose, possiedono un'importante funzione termoregolatrice e mitigatrice del clima e sono agenti attivi dal punto di vista geomorfologico.

Ci sono varie ipotesi che Europa , un satellite di Giove , ospiti dell'acqua liquida sotto lo strato di ghiacci che ricopre interamente la superficie.

Senza una qualche forma di effetto serra , l'acqua della Terra congelerebbe. Si pensa che questa sia la causa della mancanza d'acqua di Venere.

Privato dell'idrogeno, l'ossigeno reagisce con la superficie e viene inglobato in minerali solidi. Sulla Terra uno scudo di ozono assorbe la maggior parte degli ultravioletti energetici nell'alta atmosfera, riducendo questo effetto.

Infine il vulcanismo , aiutato dagli effetti di marea della Luna , emette continuamente vapore d'acqua dall'interno.

La tettonica delle placche della Terra ricicla il carbonio e l' acqua mediante la subduzione di zone ricche di sedimenti, convertendoli in magma ed emessi dai vulcani come anidride carbonica gassoso e vapore.

Le correnti oceaniche, inoltre, sono ritenute causa di una particolare oscillazione dell'asse di rotazione terrestre, detta oscillazione di Chandler.

La Terra ruota da ovest verso est una volta al giorno, inteso come giorno siderale , attorno all'asse che unisce il polo Nord al polo Sud in 23 ore, 56 minuti e 4, secondi.

Ha un satellite naturale , la Luna , che le gira attorno in 27,32 giorni. Visti dal polo Nord terrestre tutti questi movimenti si svolgono in senso antiorario.

I piani dei movimenti non sono precisamente allineati: Sempre a causa dell'inclinazione dell'asse terrestre, la posizione del Sole nel cielo e l'incidenza delle sue radiazioni vista da un osservatore posto sulla superficie varia nel corso dell'anno.

Al di sopra dei due circoli polari si raggiunge il caso estremo di alternanza di lunghi periodi di assenza di luce chiamati notti polari , a periodi di non tramonto del Sole.

Questa relazione tra il clima e l'inclinazione dell'asse terrestre viene definita tramite le quattro stagioni. Il solstizio invernale cade il 21 dicembre, quello estivo il 21 giugno; mentre i due equinozi cadono, quello primaverile il 20 marzo e quello autunnale il 23 settembre.

Entrambe le variazioni del movimento dell'asse derivano dalla mutevole attrazione del Sole e della Luna sulla parte equatoriale del pianeta. Gli oggetti in orbita attorno alla Terra devono rimanere all'interno di questo raggio in ogni punto della loro orbita per non venire strappati alla presa gravitazionale della Terra ed essere immessi in un'orbita eliocentrica: La forma sferica fu infine riconosciuta sulla base di deduzioni basate su osservazioni, quali il variare delle osservazioni astronomiche con la latitudine, l'osservazione delle eclissi di Luna e il confronto con la forma della Luna e del Sole.

I Greci , circa anni fa, cominciarono per primi a sostenere che la terra fosse una sfera. L'attrazione gravitazionale della Luna causa la maggior parte delle maree terrestri.

Terra e Luna, a causa delle forze gravitazionali reciproche sono in rotazione sincrona. Infatti la Luna ruota attorno al proprio asse in un periodo identico a quello di rivoluzione attorno alla Terra presentando quindi sempre la stessa faccia verso il pianeta.

L'insieme di queste piccole modifiche, rapportate su tempi geologici di milioni di anni, sono causa di importanti cambiamenti; infatti basta pensare che durante il Devoniano circa milioni di anni fa , per esempio, vi erano giorni in un anno terrestre, ed essi duravano circa 21,8 ore l'uno.

Senza questa stabilizzazione, l'asse di rotazione potrebbe essere caoticamente instabile, come accade per una sfera.

Se l'asse di rotazione terrestre si avvicinasse al piano dell' eclittica , ne risulterebbe un clima molto severo, dove un polo sarebbe continuamente riscaldato e l'altro congelato, causando grandi trasferimenti di energia tra un polo e l'altro che si manifesterebbero in bruschi fenomeni atmosferici.

Alcuni paleontologi che hanno studiato l'effetto sostengono che potrebbe uccidere tutti gli animali e piante superiori.

Questo effetto rimane tuttavia controverso, e gli studi su Marte , che ha circa lo stesso giorno e inclinazione assiale della Terra, ma non un grande satellite o un nucleo liquido, potrebbero dare altre informazioni.

La Terra ha anche almeno due asteroidi co-orbitali conosciuti, Cruithne e AA 29 [67] , e un asteroide troiano , TK 7.

Le masse acquee possono essere suddivise in oceani Oceano Atlantico , Oceano Indiano , Oceano Pacifico , mari , laghi e fiumi.

Quelle continentali, invece, dapprima in sette grandi continenti: America del Nord, America del Sud, Africa , Antartide , Asia , Europa e Oceania , e, successivamente, nelle loro suddivisioni in subcontinenti , macroregioni , penisole , arcipelaghi ed isole.

L' irraggiamento solare , riscalda questa parte atmosferica, sia direttamente, sia indirettamente, tramite il calore ceduto alla superficie terrestre e provoca la dilatazione dell'aria in essa contenuta.

Per completare il ciclo dell'acqua , essa viene riconvogliata verso basse quote e verso gli oceani o verso i laghi in prevalenza dai corsi d'acqua.

La Terra possiede numerose risorse naturali utili all'uso da parte del genere umano. Le risorse si distribuiscono in differenti zone del pianeta, in particolare:.

All'interno della crosta sono anche contenuti i giacimenti minerari, formati per effetto dei movimenti delle placche tettoniche , o tramite lo smantellamento di catene montuose con conseguente accumulo dei minerali.

Inoltre vengono utilizzati ed estratti, tutti quei materiali, utili o destinabili all'edilizia e alla costruzione di infrastrutture e oggetti, quali, ad esempio: Vaste aree sono sottoposte a fenomeni climatici molto violenti come i cicloni , gli uragani e i tifoni.

La Terra ospita approssimativamente 6,7 miliardi di esseri umani viventi nel [78] , con una maggior crescita della popolazione localizzata nei paesi in via di sviluppo.

Pochissime persone sono in orbita intorno alla Terra a bordo della ISS la Stazione Spaziale Internazionale , mentre altri fanno brevi viaggi sopra l' atmosfera.

In totale, fino al , circa persone sono state al di fuori dell' atmosfera e alcune di esse hanno camminato sulla Luna.

Molto significative da questo punto di vista le serie televisive di fantascienza Star Trek e Babylon 5.

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